APA is an abbreviation for American Psychological Association. The APA has established formatting for use in written work within the social sciences. This formatting includes citations within the written work and to the references and endnotes/footnotes.
General APA Formatting Expectations
- Double spacing and typed (not handwritten) work is necessary.
- All work should be submitted on 8.5 x 11 paper.
- Page headers, with numbers flush to the right, should run on each page of the essay and include a brief version of the essay’s title in less than 50 words.
- One-inch margins are necessary.
- Font should be very clear - 12 pt. Times New Roman is recommended.
- Essays must include four sections: References, Abstract, Body and a Title Page.
- On the Title Page include a centered (both horizontally and vertically) Title. The author’s name should appear underneath the title. Underneath the author’s name should be the institution with which the author is affiliated.
- Between 150 - 250 words, the Abstract should be the second page of the essay.
- The Abstract should be titled with the centered word “Abstract” at the top of the page.
- The Abstract should include major information from the research such as topic, question, methodology, analysis, participants and an overall analysis.
APA Formatting Examples for Reference Pages
- Graves, M., Juel, C., Graves, B., Dewitz, P. (2011). Teaching reading in the 21st century, motivating all learners. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
- Mesmer, H.A.E., & Griffith, P.L. (2005). Everybody's selling it-But just what is explicit, systematic phonics instruction? International Reading Association, 366-376
- National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Retrieved April 22, 2011 from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/resources/big_ideas/ phonemic_awareness.php
- Yopp, H. K. (1992). Developing Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Reading Teacher, 45, 9, 696-703.
- National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
- Pearson, P.D., Roehler, L.R., Dole, J.A., & Duffy, G.G. (1992). Developing expertise in reading comprehension.
- S. J. Samuels and A.E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction. (2nd ed., pp. 145-199). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
- Pressley, M. & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Carroll, J.P. (1966). Some neglected relationships in reading and language. Elementary English, 43, 511-582.
- D. Bennett. Strategies and Techniques in Teaching Reading. Goucher College, April 12, 2011.
- Dickinson, D.K. & McCabe, A. (2001). Bringing it all together: The multiple origins, skills, and environmental supports of early literacy. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 186-202.
- NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2000). The relation of child care to cognitive and language development. Child Development, 71, 960-980.
- Wasik, B.A., Bond, M.A., Hindman, A. (2006). The Effects of a Language and Literacy Intervention on Head Start Children and Teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 63-74.
- Whitehurst, G.J, Arnold, D.S., Epstein, J.N, Angell, A.L. Smith, M., & Fishel, J.E. (1994). A picture book reading intervention in day care and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 30, 679-689.
YourDictionary includes many more tips for formatting in the "APA style" in articles such as APA Outline Format Examples and Writing Tips for APA-Style Research Papers. If these formatting examples and tips do not apply to your particular needs, you can find highly-detailed information about the APA style in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.