Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, giving a description or more information. An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide a description. The clause starts with a pronoun such as who, whom, that, or which or an adverb such as when, where and why.
Adjective Clauses In Action
Adjective clauses do not change the basic meaning of the sentence. In some cases, when they provide more information into a sentence, they need to be set off with commas.
Here are several examples of sentences with the adjective clauses underlined:
Pizza,which most people love, is not very healthy.
The peoplewhose names are on the listwill go to camp.
Grandpa remembers the old dayswhen there was no television.
Fruitthat is grown organicallyis expensive.
Studentswho are intelligentget good grades.
Eco-friendly carsthat run on electricitysave gas.
I know someonewhose father served in World War II.
Making noise when he eats is the main reasonwhy Sue does not like to eat with her brother.
The kidswho were called firstwill have the best chance of getting a seat.
Running a marathon,a race of twenty-six miles, takes a lot of training.
I enjoy telling people about Janet Evanovichwhose latest book was fantastic.
The peoplewaiting all night outside the Apple storeare trying to purchase a new iPhone.
"Hewho can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in aweis as good as dead." - Albert Einstein
“Thosewho do not complainare never pitied.” - Jane Austen
“People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thoughtwhich they avoid.” - Søren Kierkegaard
“Never go to a doctorwhose office plants have died.” - Erma Bombeck
Turning Adjective Clauses into Phrases
An adjective clause with a subject pronoun - such as which, that or who - can also be shortened into a phrase.
You can shorten an adjective clause in two ways:
Omit the subject pronoun and verb.
Omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to the form ending in "ing."
Here are some examples of how to create an adjective phrase:
Adjective Clause: The books, which are lost, are not really necessary.
Adjective Phrase: The books lost are not really necessary.
Adjective Clause: The girl who is running is my best friend.
Adjective Phrase: The girl running is my best friend.
Adjective Clause: His share of the money, which consists of $100,000, was given to him on Monday.
Adjective Phrase: His share of the money, consisting of $100,000, was given to him on Monday.
Adjective Clause: Something that smells bad may be rotten.
Adjective Phrase: Something smelling bad may be rotten.
Remember, the goal of an adjective clause is to add more information to a noun or a pronoun. You can add the information by including a few more words or by changing the adjective clause to a phrase.