The term typology refers to the study of different types. Typology can be used across all industries and disciplines including theology, anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, psychology, politics, education, medicine, farming and more.
Typology most often classifies people or things by certain commonalities or classifies them by certain differences. Using typology helps researchers and others to better understand certain conditions or factors. For instance, the evolution and nuances of language can be better understood when approached by looking at various similar language with common traits rather than by broadly attempting to compare and contrast all languages simultaneously.
Understanding typology is important if you wish to conduct research and if you wish to use different systems of classification in order to understand how things relate to each other.