Footnote Examples and Format Tips

Footnotes are used in some books and research work, particularly work published in the social sciences discipline. Footnotes are intended to provide readers with further information or to share copyright permission information.

A few footnote usage rules:

  • Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, not restarting numbering on each page.
  • Each quotation requires a footnote.
  • Footnotes are always double-spaced.
  • Footnotes are referenced using a superscript number.

While APA style discourages the use of footnotes in most circumstances, footnotes are used in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).

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Footnotes in Research

  • Footnotes can be found on the bottom of the same page as the original quote to which it is referring, or at the end of the paper or book entirely, after the page of References.
  • Entire citations are not necessary in footnotes; instead, the footnote should merely refer to the name of the publication and date as listed on the reference page.
  • If a copyright permission footnote is added, the original letter regarding copyright permission must be attached to the paper.

Footnote Format Examples

Sample Footnote #1

Text within the research paper:

It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn’s and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms.¹

Footnote:

¹See the CCFA.org website for more information about the symptoms that Crohn’s and Colitis patients may experience.

Sample Footnote #2

Text within the research paper:

A variety of research suggests that developing basic literacy skills in early childhood can contribute to greater success in acquiring strong comprehension skills later in school.²

Footnote:

²A variety of research based articles and ideas for developing early learning skills can be found at www.readingrockets.org.

Sample Footnote #3

Text within the research paper:

While it is generally assumed that all large dogs are in need of copious amounts of exercise that would prevent them from being suitable pets for smaller residences, recent research has suggested this is a fallacy.³

Footnote:

³See Smith (2013) to see more information specific to large dogs and exercise needs.

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Sample Footnote #4

Text within the research paper:

In many states, malpractice lawsuit filings have limitations that may prevent the injured from pursuing the route necessary to receive compensation for injuries due to negligence by doctors, nurses, or other hospital staff.4

Footnote:

4Refer to Johannsen (2007) to access information about limitations by state.

Sample Footnote #5

Text within the research paper:

While most candy and sweet treats are believed to have a negative effect on those with, or susceptible to getting, diabetes, more research is supporting the idea that chocolate, when consumed in moderation, can have positive effects on the body.5

Footnote:

5Refer to Braunshweig (2011) for specific benefits of chocolate consumption.

Sample Footnote #6

Text within the research paper:

The development of aptitude with technology in young children should not overshadow the necessity of play which is crucial to building important gross and fine motor skills in early childhood.6

Footnote:

6See Harsenwusen (2014) for research demonstrating the lack of motor skill development in young children using tablets for more than an hour each day.

Sample Footnote #7

Text within the research paper:

Interstitial cystitis is a condition that can cause pain and embarrassment for women of any age, and affects many aspects of her life.7

Footnote:

7See www.urologyhealth.org for more information on the debilitating effects interstitial cystitis can have.

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Sample Footnote #8: Copyright Permission

Footnote:

From: “How To Raise a Technologically Competent Child,” by Smuten, F. and Dorgwab, T., 2011, Journal of Early Childhood Development, 76, page 23. Copyright 2011 by Dragon Press. Reprinted with Permission.

These are all examples of footnotes in different contexts.